In line with the previous findings, the aging is affected by three main factors, such as for example biological, social and environmental

This might be done by higher amount of governmental control over organizations, as well as by implementing policies that may terminate corruption. Education should become one of the more essential spheres of developing into the analyzed countries. This would be performed to boost literacy among the Latin American population. Appropriate degree of education could help to produce different industries and create more work places. This, in turn, may decrease currently advanced level of unemployment and poverty. As pointed out into the article, the organized gang criminals exist as a result of high unemployment rate among the youth. It must be emphasized that education should not only be received by children in schools and universities. There is also a strong need certainly to establish evening schools for adults to become proficient in various spheres and acquire literacy. These measures will boost infrastructure and create numerous possibilities for the people to become prosperous and successful.

The discussed countries should also reduce drug trafficking, as well as handle the people who’re engaged in these illegal activities. Drug trafficking problem can only be combated if the member states join arms in the fight the vice. Because of this to be performed, it is significant for Latin American countries not to count on drug trafficking as being a main way to obtain economic profits for the us government. They need to reject this way to obtain revenues and develop other industries which may raise the economic degree of the society. In terms of this dilemma, additionally it is essential to cope with drug abusers and implement special rehabilitation courses for them. Drug dealers, on the other hand, must be punished so that you can stop the population from massive drug use.

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Another exemplory instance of fallacy could be the usage of irrelevant facts or red herring. Employing this approach, mcdougal can distract a reader’s attention and introduce a new pair of facts which do not relate with the main topics discussion. This fallacy is generally used to make the audience be less concentrated on the major debate. The interest is also distracted from someone’s crime or guilt, since it is presented into the following example: “Wife: I cannot believe that you forgot Valentine’s Day once more. Husband: Did I inform you exactly how beautiful you look in that dress?” (Van Vleet 23). This example could be the simplest one because it is directed at distracting woman’s attention by making her profile essay Red herring approach is generally found in the courts by solicitors to distract the jury from real facts and make them rely on other facts. As an example, the argumentation could possibly be displayed into the following example: “Professor Conway complains of inadequate parking on our campus. But did you know last year Conway carried on a torrid relationship by having a member of the English department?” (Walton 139). In this manner, it is possible to lead the jury as well as the court into the wrong direction.


The article under analysis is called “Migrants Face Fortress Europe’s Deadly Moat”, when the author reports about the death of 1200 people into the Mediterranean. The victims included predominantly migrants from Mali, Syria, Eritrea, and Somalia, who lay out from united states in desire to reach European shores. Mcdougal also is targeted on the political areas of the tragedy, pointing out the viewpoints and assumptions created by the European politicians. Into the article, the interest has been paid towards the criticism of this policies in Europe regarding migration procedures. Especially, the majority of political agents and governmental authorities are maybe not prepared to encourage the migration process. In response, they will have developed a three-fold strategy that strives to militarize border controls, outsource controls, and criminalizing migration generally speaking.

Further into the article, the interest has been paid towards the analysis of this EU security strategies as well as the dilemma of increase in migration rate. Apparently, the author attempted to produce a connection involving the tragedy on boat as well as the European government’s reluctance to deliver permission on migration. In fact, the authorities guaranteeing that these protection measures were taken purely for protection of this nation’s integrity and for reducing the rates of illegal immigration. Furthermore, the border controls initiatives were taken in to the deepest consideration to define the problem of African Migration. The overriding point is that France and Britain are involved with migration from Libya and, as being a result, their forces were inclined to air attacks. Similar expansion activities are regarding Morocco. Into the light of this tragedy that took place into the see, the major way of managing protection dilemmas and border control were reconsidered. Especially, Malik pays awareness of European policy’s failed strategy that promised to destroy smugglers’ boats. Apparently, here is the most crucial and argumentative an element of the article revealing the author’s assumption regarding the type and reasons of this tragedy. Mentioning multiple interventions of this European Union, combined with airstrikes and marine military equipment, explains the text between numerous disasters into the sea as well as the strategic framework chosen by the European government.

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In the end of this article, mcdougal concludes that Europe has generated serious barriers, combined with moral boundaries, which complicate the communication and commercial relations. Moreover, the barricades did not allow other countries and European countries in particular to discover a consensus concerning the genuine values and human rights. The Mediterranean region will continue to suffer from peoples death unless some changes are introduced towards the European policies regarding migration.

Response and Application

The article that has been chosen for analysis is named and starts aided by the bright exemplory instance of argumentum advertising misericordiam which can be also referred to as the interest pity. The author starts aided by the enumeration of countries from which the people migrated and who endured the boat incident. Furthermore, irrelevant facts were found in the writing to distract the readers from the fact and improve the position of this tragedy. The emphasis has been placed on the degree of poverty into the countries from which the victims originated: “Fleeing war and poverty, most had paid large sums to traffickers” (Malik). Additionally, there are persuasive facts known as by authorities, such as for example European politicians: “Who is always to blame? European politicians point the little finger at traffickers” (Malik). There are numerous other fallacies which emphasize the topic and introduce just about all forms of argumentation to prove the blame. The analysis of this article as well as the range of fallacies are appropriate because of the topic of this research.

The application of irrelevant facts means the author’s description of European border control methods, which are somehow linked to the tragedy into the Mediterranean. Especially, the author writes, “When the European Union treats immigration as being a dilemma of criminality, it is not just the traffickers who’re objectives. In 2004, A german ship rescued 37 African refugees from a dinghy” (Malik). The second sentence does maybe not relate with the first one much. However, the author sets them together to distract the audience’s attention and emphasize the negative consequences of this protection framework, helping to make the complete argument ambiguous. Both approaches found in this article improve the author’s main idea concerning the irrelevant protection reforms introduced by the European government.

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In general, this article has interesting assumptions, statistical analysis, rhetoric approaches, and use of fallacies. The main topics discussion disclosed into the article is very important nowadays into the lights of human liberties protection and equality. Therefore, the European community should reconsider the priorities and define new steps in social, political, and cultural development of the continent. Especially, the author introduces a selection of approaches and fallacies to persuade the audience that the tragedy into the sea just isn’t a major accident, but a consequence of the irrelevant protection policies introduced by the European authorities so as to bolster the border control.

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Problem Statements

Conventionally, the type and way to obtain the political attitude has been subject of this much investigation.  Such attitude is believed to be built from sensible, unencumbered reactions towards the environmental activities. However, more investigation emphasizes regarding the integrated and automated quality of several political responses considering brain activation variations( Oxley et al, 2008). However, no research shows why some individuals embrace specific political attitudes while others appear primed to look at quite different attitudes.


The question about whether the America’s red-blue separate on the basis of the voter’s physiology fundamentally offers a justifiable rationale for the investigator to assess the partnership.  Usually such aspect has mainly been connected with imaginative reaction to the environmental activities (Oxley et al, 2008). Even though the political attitude has been a way to obtain study for a lot of scholars, very little effort has been dedicated to the investigating the biological affect the political attitude.


In the analysis, the authors have devised a supposition that variations in physical sensitivity to threat are related with the political thinking. The investigators aims to reveals that political attitude mainly differs with physiological attributes linked to environmental threats (Oxley et al, 2008).

Measurement of Variables

In the analysis, you can find quantity of both independent and dependent variables. Independent variables included both threatening and non-threatening images, age, gender, education and income.  Into the study, the dependent variable included an additive index of 18 dilemmas item that were considering Standard Wilson Patterson battery (Oxley et al, 2008).

Research Design

The authors of this study used a quasi-experimental design. The study look just like experimental design but it lacks the key ingredients such as for example random assignment. The investigation design had been structured to ascertain whether political affiliation is related to the physiological faculties through a series of interviews and experiment.


The subject of this study had been recruited by the Bureau of Sociological Research at the University of Nebraska. Into the study, a random sample of this resident had been selected in Lincoln, Nebraska to be involved in the analysis (Oxley et al, 2008). an initial mobile call plus an introductory letter had been utilized to pose limited number of item towards the respondent aided by the intent behind obtaining a band of individual with strong political conviction toward whom the intense and more focused  examination will undoubtedly be directed. A complete of 1,310 individuals were contacted and 608 completed the screening things (Oxley et al, 2008). The subjects that have been recruited because of this particular project only should they responded yes to all or any the three questions poses into the assessment items. As a result, a complete of 143 responded consented to engage regarding the physiological experiment into the laboratory. BOSR managed to schedule 48 participants at both sessions for the analysis.


The instrument used to get the info had been well defined. All subject were in additional to undertaking a physiological assessment, all participant also undertook a thorough computer-based survey questionnaire that include a demographic questions, questions on political and dilemmas of preferences, in addition to a series of personality and emotional batteries (Oxley et al, 2008). All socio-demographic and attitude data had been collected making use of self-reporter computer based study administer via Media Lab pc software (Oxley et al, 2008).  Furthermore, the instrument had been clearly developed to include a coding scale that determines the level when the respondent agreed or disagreed aided by the things into the questionnaires.

Data Collection

The data found in the analysis had been collected with the use of questionnaires that determined their political conviction and affiliations in relations with their physiological faculties. Ethical consideration had been placed into contemplated into the study in make an effort to avoid violation of fundamental liberties of this participant. The entire participant had been informed of this intent behind the analysis before recruitment. The required details of this study were offered to the niche ergo their performance had been based on informed choices. Besides, the participant confidentiality had been very protected.

Data Analysis

The data was analyzed utilising the SPPS v.14.0. A regression be a consequence of the key text had been taken form a linear ordinary test square regression analysis.  Though linear regression model are mainly connected with social science where correlation design are normal, the legitimacy of this estimates produced   by the multiple regression were critically influenced by series of assumptions (Oxley et al, 2008). The analysis of this residual from the regression models ensured that all assumptions were satisfied.

Author’s Conclusion

The author’s revealed that the level to which people are physiologically tuned in to threat appear to shows the amount to which they advocate policies that protects the prevailing social structures from both internal and external threats (Oxley et al, 2008).

Possible threat to Internal, External and Construct Validity

In regards to the internal threat, the appropriateness of this inferences made in line with the study is insufficient to warrant the authors’ conclusion (In Zumbo & In Chan, 2014). Even though the author’s have significantly strived to utilize variable that show relationship involving the political convention and physiological faculties, variables found in the analysis doesn’t explicitly gauge the intended parameters. The analysis has utilized dramatically large numbers of variables that ensure it is complex to attain a substantive objective of this study (In Zumbo & In Chan, 2014).

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In regard to external legitimacy, though the study dramatically strived to recruit a sizable sample size, only 48 out significantly more than 600 respondents participated in the two waves of this student. Therefore, the sample size appears inadequate to full inform or prove the hypothesis. The confidence degree of the study is quite reduced in respect towards the magnitude of this investigation (In Zumbo & In Chan, 2014). The sample size found in the analysis compromise the reader’s confidence in stating whether the study’s results are applicable to many other groups. The subjects were asked in regards to the quantities of support for 28 policies or political acts and only 18 were identified. However, the identified factors are less likely to want to be held by individuals focused on the protecting the interest of participating group.

The analysis has used an exceptional design that gives the study both content and criterion legitimacy. The appropriateness of this inference made in line with the study and measurement is especially supported by the investigation design, sample size, data collection and data analysis (In Zumbo & In Chan, 2014). Into the physiological assessment, an alternative means of looking at the eye blink data dramatically ignores the adaptation, and gift suggestions mean blink amplitude for all seven threatening stimuli, once more with the exact same group division.


In in conclusion, it is evident that though the article suggests presence of minor flaws that affect it legitimacy, this article has dramatically achieved its objective. To large level, it has answered the question raised into the problem statement. The findings have clearly shown a relationship between individual political views and physiological faculties. If I was to redo the analysis, little adjustment into the sample size is going to be effected. I will raise the sample size so that you can improve the confidence degree of the study (In Zumbo & In Chan, 2014). This article pays to and makes sense specially as it has generated that a relationship exist between different political perception upheld by individuals and physiological faculties.  Besides, the analysis is in keeping with the outcome reported into the main text hence suggesting that the findings as well as the inferences of this paper are robust with regard to the estimation and measurement. The analysis is quite important to both the society and public administrator since it changes the original attitudes that assumed attitudes were built form sensible, imaginative reactions to environmental activities. The analysis will not dramatically changes the individual means of practice as it robustness and confidence level remains lacking. However, an even more compressive study on the field is crucial so that you can establish more interconnectedness.

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Aging is just a difficult and painful process for many adults. Specially aging brings disquiet for individuals who fear ageing for various reasons: wear and tear, general imbalance, disengagement, continuity theory, etc. The majority are struggling to accept this natural process that everybody has to eventually proceed through, therefore endure their retirement. Home care centers for elderly were developed as being a way to restore the balance in psycho-emotional, biological and environmental states of this aging and raise the satisfaction of life as of this period. Nonetheless, the latest research in your community of gerontology had shown that this is not always the truth. Gerontology is just a study that reflects a study in relation to family caregiving, intergenerational dilemmas, ethnicity, residential care, etc. In just one of the articles regarding areas of gerontology, Goldsmith (2012) discusses the genetic dilemmas of aging and implies that the human lifespan depends on the programmed and non-programed theories. In turn, Coles (2013) enlarges regarding the advances of contemporary gerontology and sets an increased exposure of the importance of making a positive aging vision. an interesting research had been conducted by Kerbler (2012), who states that “the concept of ageing at home may be implemented with the aid of information and communication technologies” (p. 166). Hence, gerontology aims at explaining the theories of aging and finding the methods to make this process since smooth and comfortable as you can for the elderly. In line with the previous findings, the aging is affected by three main factors, such as for example biological, social and environmental. The investigation articles by Ayalon (2011) and Ayalon et al. (2012), describe the situations that touch social and environmental factors that affect the results of aging.

Why don’t we walk through the analysis of social aspects and aging theories described in the studies of this article writers. First, the articles by Ayalon (2011), and Ayalon et al. (2012) are dedicated to the effect of care performed in home settings by foreign workers who take care of older people within their natural Israel. The article writers argue the concern of speculating the correlation involving the aspect of caregiving and loneliness. In line with the social theory of aging, growing old is just a co-dependent interactive process that in a vicious circle affects the environmental surroundings as well as the elderly. This article by Ayalon (2011) describes the need for the elderly to own you to definitely watch over. True that in line with the activity theory, engaging active social interactions with younger adults favorably affect regarding the satisfaction and well-being of this recipient. Nonetheless, this process could have side effects regarding the elderly in case there is disability or other reasons that stop the recipient from maintaining middle-aged lifestyle and meaningful participation in active interfacing.

Second, ageing the individuals experience mutual separation from society. For this reason fact, your home care centers are now being developed so that you can oppress the ego-centric and self-absorved features that are being developed into the individuals and acquire straight back on track to societal lifestyle. It really is widely acknowledged that the elderly in settings that are distant from their property tend to feel lack of attention and loneliness due to the absence of their family people. However, Ayalon’s (2011) article refutes this particular idea and examines the consequences of foreign workers regarding the social, emotional, and biological areas of older people that tend to bring very good results, and also satisfaction. The scholars figure out what makes foreign people become human services workers. Among the reasons are “dramatic demographic changes” and “availability of informal care” (Ayalon, 2011, p. 376). The researchers reveal live-in home look after elderly that engage them in close communication with at the very least another person, who helps them to be predisposed for self-reflection and be free of social roles, though be attached with social interactions.

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Third, continuity and life course theory is just a problematic aspect for perception of an aging person. The person is employed to produce attachments while being in life as everything is forever. Nevrtheless, when the dangerous age comes there exists a need certainly to overcome and accept the thought of inescapable change and decline. The researchers (2011, and 2012) explore the irreplaceable need certainly to walk the elderly through this journey by the end of its cycle. The thought of live-in home care has now reached the degree of extreme popularity and Ayalon’s article (2011) reflects upon the positive sides of such an experience. It is fair to conjecture that the article’s hypothesis might be supported by the scholar’s idea to activate various stakeholders into the investigation. It indicates that the elderly, their family and foreign workers contributed towards the study.

Why don’t we walk through the analysis of environmental aspects and aging theories described in the studies of this article writers. Environmental gerontology studies the aspects that optimize, alter and ameliorate hawaii of this aging person from environmental perspective. The studies describe how do live-in home foreign social workers affect the environmental surroundings of this elderly that they take care of, along with the degree of satisfaction from this experience. Whilst the studies of social theories of aging have more or less clear overview and the cause and effect results, the behavioral environmental gerontology are at the cradle of this research. The researchers conclude that the environmental theories have twin influence on the elderly.

First, Ayalon (2011) sticks to particular theories, arguing that foreign live-in workers affect old people ina positive manner This article offers a clear-cut literature review that performs the function of informing prospective readers or the target audience in regards to the challenges of this research, regarding the areas of home care. It really is evident from the literature review that a great gap exists failing to offer a proper definition of satisfaction inside the context of home care. Mcdougal of this study makes a striking conclusion that a home worker features a positive influence on older reduced people. The investigation would not show that cognitive status somehow affected the satisfaction levels. The older adults who actually spend the majority of their time with their foreign home care workers were more likely to view the workers as members of the family. Their family people, on the other hand, were more hesitant to take action, because to varying degrees, by enabling another person into their families, they could relinquish their own destination and status. (Ayalon, 2011, p. 381).

Besides the above-mentioned results, the article sheds light on a finding that family members` satisfaction is dependent upon the degree of impairment of this older recipients of care. Even though the study just isn’t regarding any theory of gerontology, it is worth conjecturing so it made a tremendous contribution to the field because Ayalon (2011) managed to show the importance of a live-in worker in caregiving techniques.


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Suffice to state, as every other article considering a qualitative study, this particular one includes the implications of further research for gerontological policy and techniques. As Ayalon’s (2011) article has evident limits, it will probably be worth mentioning that this article had been narrowed to a specific variable of satisfaction. Hence, it is not possible to generalize the outcome of this article towards the entire population of social care workers. Truly, another research should focus on generalization and also other possible variables apart from satisfaction. Regarding policy things, the authorities may possibly provide special merit pays for social workers to encourage them to function better, since it increases satisfaction levels of most of the stakeholders.

On the contrary, there may be no doubt into the assumption that Ayalon et al.’s (2012) article supplements the previous one and refutes its roles to some extent. The worth of this article relates to the emphasis put by authors regarding the influence of a live-in worker on the levels of loneliness in older people: “[…] we argue that this arrangement may, in some instances, predispose the older care recipient to intense feelings of loneliness” (Ayalon et al., 2012, p. 190). Nonetheless, the study doesn’t reveal the origins and consequences of loneliness. It is worth mentioning that Ayalon et al.’s (2012) article shows the expectations of several researchers due to the reason that some older people tend to feel lonely while they come to recognize that their family people cannot take care of them.

This article contributes to gerontology in a fashion that it sheds light regarding the worldwide sensation of home care into the light of this recipients’ loneliness. The authors synthesize literature, hence making a theoretical framework for their research. This specific theoretical framework constitutes the speculations over the subjective nature of loneliness generally speaking, and differentiates between emotional and social forms of loneliness (Ayalon et al., 2012, p. 192) that is peculiar to the elderly. The loneliness is explained through the prism of cognitive and physical disabilities.

Ayalon at al.’s (2012) article may be marked aided by the appropriateness of this theoretical back ground presented by way of a synthesis of suitable literature. The key findings that this article provides consist into the assumption that cognitive and physiological disabilities will be the main triggers for loneliness. It is explained by the deteriorated senses that manifest on their own in numerous communication conditions that result in association with social loneliness. In addition, an individual may feel lonely due to the loss in freedom in walking, eating, etc. It is vital to appreciate that each and every individual has his/her own peculiarities of aging (Cline, 2014). The matter is older adults are far more vunerable to the influence of different age stereotypes. This informative article might be linked with other gerontological dilemmas. Seemingly, the results proved that older adults attach negative attributes with their age that become salient (Weiss & Lang, 2012). Numerous researchers venture in to the matter of this influence that age exerts regarding the mental side. In accordance with Weiss, Sussenberg and Freund (2013), “Negative age stereotypes are pervasive and threaten older adults’ self-esteem” (p. 1140). The studies declare that older adults are marked aided by the incident of “prejudicial attitudes” with their age that constitute the back ground of serious stereotypes (Stewart, Chipperfield, Perry, & Weiner, 2012). Prevention of this negative consequences of age-related stereotypes must be viewed through the prism of positive intergenerational contact due towards the reason that it “can reduce vulnerability to stereotype threat among older people” (Abrams et al., 2006, p. 691). Independent of the stereotypes, “another potential system in charge of loneliness in this band of older adults would be the fact that their personal care is given by a paid worker” (Ayalon et al., 2012, p. 195).

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Ayalon et al.’s (2012) article has a selection of implications for health care specialists and gerontological researchers. The situation is caregivers should allow the members of the family to join up socially and emotionally into the arrangements created by medical researchers. The latter should also address the situation of cultural awareness that could cause older people’s underestimated self-scoring. Medical researchers should fulfill older adults` needs in order to avoid them from feeling lonely. Even though the article discusses several pathways to loneliness, still you can find implications for further qualitative research, which should provide an in-depth evaluation of this nature of loneliness, its factors and consequences towards the generation of the elderly due to their vulnerability. In accordance with Ayalon et al. (2012), there exists a need certainly to continue to explore factors that are related to loneliness in older adults generally speaking also more specific factors linked to loneliness in older adults under a live-in foreign home care worker. (p. 196)

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Other important notions that are discussed into the article are regarding understanding whether self-forgiveness could be an accident to a person, as sometimes the style could be used as well as different rules, the existence of pseudo-forgiveness and degree of its appropriateness. The authors introduce the style of self-forgiveness that features such components as guilt, shame, attributions, conciliatory behavior, perception of forgiveness that comes from another side or victim, as well as the offences’ severity. Hence, the model has specific limits as there are a few facilitators of self-forgiveness. The authors finish their article by providing additional ideas for further research and concluding so it would be advantageous to study deeper the situation of self-forgiveness.


First, I need to suggest that after reading the abovementioned article, I changed my perception of self-forgiveness and its main components. More over, I have understood why it is so important with regards to interpersonal transgression and that sometimes it could be an accident or become unreal; then, it is called pseudo-forgiveness.

It was interesting for me to discover that self-forgiveness and interpersonal forgiveness actually differ; they both have similar motivations, nevertheless the levels and areas they affect are not the same. Self-forgiveness creates motivation that is about change, but this cannot be placed on interpersonal forgiveness as it is permanent and unconditional.

It absolutely was rather informative for me to learn about pseudo self-forgiveness. Thereafter, the true forgiveness comes only after an individual understands that he / she really did something very wrong.

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